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Hepatic Regeneration and Reno-Protection by Fish oil, Nigella sativa Oil and Combined Fish Oil/Nigella sativa Volatiles in CCl4 Treated Rats .

Al-Okbi, Sahar Y; Mohamed, Doha A; Hamed, Thanaa E; Edris, Amr E; Fouda, Karem

The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of fish oil, crude Nigella sative oil and combined fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil as hepato-regenerative and renal protective supplements. The oils were administered as emulsions to rat model with liver injury induced by CCl 4 . Plasma activities of transaminases (AST and ALT) were evaluated as liver function indicators, while plasma creatinine and urea and creatinine clearance were determined as markers of kidney function. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were estimated to assess the exposure to oxidative stress and subsequent inflammation. Liver fat was extracted and their fatty acids´ methyl esters were determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that plasma activities of AST and ALT were significantly higher in CCl 4 control group compared to control healthy group. Plasma levels of creatinine and urea increased significantly in CCl 4 control, while creatinine clearance was reduced significantly in the same group. All rat treated groups given the three oil emulsions showed improvement in liver function pointing to the initiation of liver regeneration . The combination of fish oil/Nigella sative volatiles showed the most promising regenerative activity. Oxidative stress and inflammation which were increased significantly in CCl 4 control group showed improvement on administration of the three different oil emulsions. Fatty acids methyl ester of liver fat revealed that rats treated with fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil presented the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids (45.52% ± 0.81) while fish oil showed the highest saturated fatty acids (53.28% ± 1.68). Conclusion; Oral administration of oil emulsions of native fish oil, Nigella sative crude oil and combined fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil reduced liver and kidney injury in rat model of CCl 4 through exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Fish oil

Proteomic analysis of liver in rats chronically exposed to fluoride.

Pereira, Heloísa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva; Leite, Aline de Lima; Charone, Senda; Lobo, Janete Gualiume Vaz Madureira; Cestari, Tania Mary; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

Fluoride (F) is a potent anti-cariogenic element, but when ingestion is excessive, systemic toxicity may be observed. This can occur as acute or chronic responses, depending on both the amount of F and the time of exposure. The present study identified the profile of protein expression possibly associated with F-induced chronic hepatotoxicity. Weanling male Wistar rats (three-weeks old) were divided into three groups and treated with drinking water containing 0, 5 or 50 mg/L F for 60 days (n=6/group). At this time point, serum and livers were collected for F analysis, which was done using the ion-sensitive electrode, after hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion. Livers were also submitted to histological and proteomic analyses (2D-PAGE followed by LC-MS/MS). Western blotting was done for confirmation of the proteomic data A dose-response was observed in serum F levels. In the livers , F levels were significantly increased in the 50 mg/L F group compared to groups treated with 0 and 5 mg/L F. Liver morphometric analysis did not reveal alterations in the cellular structures and lipid droplets were present in all groups. Proteomic quantitative intensity analysis detected 33, 44, and 29 spots differentially expressed in the comparisons between control vs. 5 mg/L F, control vs. 50 mg/L F, and 5 mg/L vs. 50 mg/L F, respectively. From these, 92 proteins were successfully identified. In addition, 18, 1, and 5 protein spots were shown to be exclusive in control, 5, and 50 mg/L F, respectively. Most of proteins were related to metabolic process and pronounced alterations were seen for the high-F level group. In F-treated rats , changes in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and GRP-78 expression may account for the F-induced toxicity in the liver . This can contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatoxicity induced by F, by indicating key-proteins that should be better addressed in future studies.

If you’re familiar with the Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF) you have probably seen examples using component metadata.

Metadata is information about a component, stored with that component, accessible without necessarily creating a component instance.

Adding Metadata to a Component Registration

Values describing metadata are associated with the component at registration time. Each metadata item is a name/value pair:

The same thing can be represented in deployment-time configuration

Unlike a regular property, a metadata item is independent of the component itself.

This makes it useful when selecting one of many components based on runtime criteria; or, where the metadata isn’t intrinsic to the component implementation. Metadata could represent the time that an ITask should run, or the button caption for an ICommand .

Other components can consume metadata using the Meta<T> type.

To consume metadata without creating the target component, use Meta<Lazy<T>> or the .NET 4 Lazy<T, TMetadata> types as shown below.

To avoid the use of string-based keys for describing metadata, a metadata class can be defined with a public read/write property for every metadata item:

At registration time, the class is used with the overloaded WithMetadata method to associate values:

Notice the use of the strongly-typed AppenderName property.

Registration and consumption of metadata are separate, so strongy-typed metadata can be consumed via the weakly-typed techniques and vice-versa.

You can also provide default values using the DefaultValue attribute:

If you are able to reference System.ComponentModel.Composition you can use the System.Lazy<T, TMetadata> type for consuming values from the strongly-typed metadata class:

Another neat trick is the ability to pass the metadata dictionary into the constructor of your metadata class:

If you have access to System.ComponentModel.Composition and include a reference to the Autofac.Mef package you can use an interface for your metadata instead of a class.

The interface should be defined with a readable property for every metadata item:

You must also call the RegisterMetadataRegistrationSources method on the ContainerBuilder before registering the metadata against the interface type.

Bitcoin, which debuted in the wild in 2009, “is the first implementation of blockchain technology,” according to IBM . And yet, many of the technology designs that are labeled “blockchain” today bear little to no resemblance to Bitcoin’s blockchain.

Google’s definition of “blockchain” is “a digital ledger in which transactions made in bitcoin or another cryptocurrency are recorded chronologically and publicly.” While most people would agree that a blockchain is a digital ledger, many blockchains do not have an associated cryptocurrency and are not recorded publicly . Some would even argue that a blockchain Designer Zadig amp; Voltaire Embossed Suede Ankle Boots Get Footlocker Pictures Cheap Online Limit Offer Cheap 6XUAMt1gJb

Investopedia says, “A blockchain is a digitized, decentralized, public ledger of all cryptocurrency transactions.” Again, many blockchains are not public, and many others are not decentralized .

IBM’s definition says, “Blockchain technology is used in a peer-to-peer network of parties, who all participate in a given transaction.” Except that at least for one well-publicized blockchain, the one built by World Food Programme, there is only one participating party : itself. IBM goes on: “Because the ledger is distributed, everyone involved can see the ‘world state’ at any point in time and can monitor the progress of the transaction.” Mastercard’s blockchain, however, is not viewable by anybody (and seems to have no function outside of marketing since Mastercard admits that payments are still Free Shipping Cheap Real Manolo Blahnik Lace Slingback Pumps w/ Tags Order Original twnDTFvN

Highly marketed efforts in Estonia provide a good example of how the term “blockchain” has been stretched and diluted. “Since 2007 Estonia has been operating a universal national digital identity scheme using blockchain,” the Harvard Business Review wrote last year . The New Yorker wrote in December 2017 that “the backbone of Estonia’s digital security is a blockchain technology.”

Estonia’s system actually predates the Bitcoin blockchain, and there is some disagreement over whether it should be called a blockchain technology.

David Birch, a fintech consultant and author of Before Babylon, Beyond Bitcoin , found himself at a blockchain event with Estonia’s CIO, Siim Sikkut, who seemed to confirm that Estonia’s system is not a blockchain.

“I asked him where this ‘Estonian blockchain ID’ myth came from since I find it absolutely baffling that this urban legend has obtained such traction,” Birch wrote . “He said that it might be something to do with people misunderstanding the use of hashes to protect the integrity of data in the Estonian system.”

Estonia’s technology vendor, Guardtime, rebranded its offering from “ hash-linked time-stamping ” to a “blockchain technology.” That’s not necessarily untrue since “blockchain” has no agreed-upon definition — and for now, it’s a good marketing tactic .

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